Sexual Transmitted Infection and HIV

Introduction
Sex is a normal human function that can involve the expression of love and emotional feelings, and does provide a means for reproduction. Sexual intercourse, however, is not without potential harmful or unintended consequences. Two major potential health consequences of sexual intercourse are unintentional pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV infection.
STIs means sexually transmitted infections that are spread from one person to person through sexual contact including anal, oral or vagina sex.
Causes
Sexually transmitted infections are caused by:
•   Bacteria (gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia)
•   Parasites (trichomoniasis)
•   Viruses (HIV, genital herpes, humanpapilomavirus)
Most common types of STIs, their common symptoms, diagnosis and treatment are:
Chlamydia
Symptoms: unusual discharge, painful urination, abdominal pain, pain in rectum.
Diagnosed by: swab or urine sample.
Treatment: antibiotics.
Genital warts
Symptoms: white or flesh coloured bumps around genital area that may be itchy.
Diagnosed by: visible to the eye.
Treatment: medical removal of the warts.
Gonorrhea
Symptoms: unusual discharge, painful & more frequent urination, painful defecation.
Diagnosed by: swab or urine sample.
Treatment: antibiotics.
Hepatitis
Symptoms: flu-like illness, nausea, loss of appetite, liver inflammation.
Diagnosed by: blood test.
Treatment: Hepatitis A = virus clears on its own. Hepatitis B = virus clears on its own or antiviral. Drugs needed. Hepatitis C = antiviral drugs.
Herpes
Symptoms: sores around genital area or mouth that are painful, itchy or tingle.
Diagnosed by: physical examination, genital or oral swab.
Treatment: antiviral drugs if the infection doesn’t clear on its own.
Syphilis
Symptoms: ulcers, sores, rash, swollen glands.
Diagnosed by: blood test or swab from a sore.
Treatment: injection of antibiotics
Relationship between STI and HIV
The relationship between HIV and other STI is complex because it is both biological and behavioral. Some STIs, such as syphilis, herpes, genital ulcers, cause breaks in the lining of the genital tract. Those breaks can then become entry points for HIV. Read more

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